Botanically known as Quercus infectaria.
The gall oak is a semi-evergreen shrub or small tree up to 6m tall, with grey scaly bark.
Part of Plant Used
The galls are produced by female oak gall wasps that lay their eggs in punctures made on tree branches. These punctures grow and harden into spherical structures due to the tannin excreted by the tree.
Aleppo Oak can be found singly, or forming bushy forests, up to 2000m altitude, from Asia Minor and the eastern Mediterranean countries eastward to Iraq. It is also found in southeastern Europe.
Dyeing with Gallnut
Oak galls were a very rich source of black dye for many centuries. They are extremely rich in their tannin properties and work impeccably for mordanting cellulosic materials.